Perseveration 2011 Movie [PORTABLE]
The PWS critical region includes a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and HBII-52 (SNORD115), which has been shown to regulate the processing of the mRNA of the serotonin 2 C receptor, located elsewhere on the genome (Kishore and Stamm 2006). New mouse models of PWS are based on this finding, including mice deleted for HBII-52 (Ding et al. 2008) or with altered 2 C receptor mRNA functioning (Morabito et al. 2010). As with other PWS models, these mice are hyperphagic but not obese. Sahoo et al. (2008) reported a boy with features consistent with the diagnosis of PWS who had a small deletion of only the snoRNA HBII-85 and part of SNORD115 region, strongly implicating these clusters in the PWS phenotype. Lack of HBII-52 expression in PWS may lead to altered processing of serotonin 2 C receptor mRNA, which may impact the efficacy of serotonin-altering medications in this population (Dykens and Shah 2003). Although altered serotonergic functioning has long been implicated in autism, including high levels of platelet serotonin (Veenstra-Vanderweele et al. 2009), serotonin levels or serotonin-altering genes have yet to be well-studied in PWS (although see Dykens et al. 2011).
Perseveration 2011 Movie
Aberrant face processing has been identified in people with ASD using eye tracking, event-related potentials (ERPs), and functional neuroimaging. Eye tracking studies, for example, show that children with ASD often demonstrate less fixation on eyes and/or they have a relative proficiency in processing the mouth region relative to the eye region (Dalton et al. 2005; Klin et al. 2002). Studies are now underway using eye tracking in PWS. In ERP work, the N170 is often used as an electrophysiological marker for the encoding of upright faces and children with autism appear to have a dampening of the N170 in response when viewing faces (Grice et al. 2005). A preliminary study in PWS found a similar dampening effect in eight individuals with paternal deletions (Halit et al. 2011). The eight participants with mUPD showed a more typical N170 response to faces, but their eye gaze processing was similar to adults with autism. Data suggest unusual perceptual processing of faces in both genetic subtypes of PWS.
Rhythm: Arabic is stress-timed similar to English (Nespor, Shukla, & Mehler, 2011). However, Arabic does not strictly produce syllable stress at the same phases within phrases like English. In addition, the fundamental frequency (F1) for low vowels in stressed syllables in Arabic is between 10 and 40 Hz, compared to 50 and 100 Hz in English (Tajima, Zawaydeh, & Kitabara, 1999).
Figure 3. Bouchardy-Rey and Anton Räderscheidt. (A) Huguette Bouchardy-Rey: Bouquet de Doris Mart (2001). Huguette Bouchardy-Rey. (B) Huguette Bouchardy-Rey: Rose (2001). Huguette Bouchardy-Rey. (C) Anton Räderscheidt. Mann mit gelben Handschuhen (1918); (D) Anton Räderscheidt. Self-portrait (1968). Anton Räderscheidt VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn, Reproduktion aussschliesslich mit Autorisierung der Copyright-Inhaber, 2011, ProLitteris, Zurich.
Citation: Blanke O and Pasqualini I (2012) The riddle of style changes in the visual arts after interference with the right brain. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 5:154. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2011.00154
There are a few cases of palinopsia with many of the same features as hallucinatory palinopsia (formed image perseveration) but with some important differences. The formed perseverated image may only last a couple seconds or may be black or translucent. These variants usually lack the realistic clarity of hallucinatory palinopsia, and the generation of the palinoptic images is affected by fixation time, motion, stimulus intensity, or contrast. These variants probably represent an overlap in hallucinatory and illusory palinopsia but are included in illusory palinopsia since they often co-exist with the other illusory symptoms.
Illusory palinopsia may occur during a migraine aura, as do other diffuse illusory symptoms such as halos around objects, visual snow, dysmetropsia, and oscillopsia. In a rare migraine subtype known as persistent visual aura without infarction, illusory palinopsia symptoms (prolonged indistinct afterimages, light streaking, and visual trailing) persist after the migraine has abated. Alternatively, up to 10% of all migraineurs report of formed afterimages that only last a couple seconds and do not occur with other illusory symptoms. These momentary afterimages appear at a different location in the visual field than the original stimulus, occur a few times per month, and are affected by external light and motion. (variant image perseveration). Migraineurs with these momentary afterimages report significantly fewer migraine headaches than migraineurs without these afterimages (4.3 vs. 14.4 attacks/year). These afterimages probably represent an overlap in hallucinatory and illusory palinopsia. Studying these momentary formed afterimages, in relation to alterations in cortical excitability, could advance our understanding of migraine pathogenesis and mechanisms associated with encoding visual memory.
Currently the article links to the Atlanta Falcons' former defensive end. However, this is not the same Tim Green-- Obviously the man in the movie's older than thirty! The Mr. Green who played Lamson has an IMDB here:
I've never seen the movie so I can't fix it myself but the summary is pretty poorly written. Some of the sentences don't really make sense to me, because of things like unclear reference or grammatical errors. The summary is also very long. Perhaps it can be cleaned up?
Cultural capacities as adaptations: Culture, cultural transmission, and cultural evolution arise from genetically evolved psychological adaptations for acquiring ideas, beliefs, values, practices, mental models, and strategies from other individuals by observation and inference. Thus, the first step in theorizing is to use the logic of natural selection to develop hypotheses about the evolution and operation of our cultural learning capacities (Rendell et al., 2011).
Our developmental team tested the evolutionary hypothesis that young children would use the attention and preferential gaze of others as a cue to direct their own cultural learning efforts. We exposed 3-5 year olds to two models (people they could learn from) who were being differentially watched by others in an initial cuing scene. Then, when they were alone, each model made different choices, including operating an artifact in different ways and selecting from among different foods and drinks. While showing no conscious awareness of the differential attention or play preferences for the models, the children preferentially imitated the artifact manipulation and food and drink choices of the models that were watched more by other people in the initial scene (Chudek, Heller, Birch, & Henrich, 2011).
Recognizing the centrality of culture in human life leads to a novel evolutionary theory of status and status psychology (Henrich & Gil-White, 2001). Evolutionary researchers have tended to assume that human status is merely an extension of primate dominance hierarchies. However, because humans are so heavily dependent on an information economy for survival, our species has evolved a second avenue to social status that operates alongside dominance and has its own suite of cognitive and affective processes. The theory predicts that these two types of status, labeled dominance and prestige, can be distinguished by their ethological displays, patterns of imitation and deference, memory biases, and affective responses. Recent empirical work by our status team, in both the laboratory and field, has revealed the expected patterns for prestige vs. dominance, and has shown that both forms of status can coexist and influence group decision-making and attention (Cheng, Tracy, Foulsham, & Kingstone, 2011; Cheng, Tracy, & Henrich, 2010; Foulsham, Cheng, Tracy, Henrich, & Kingstone, 2010).
The existing work on status within psychology is bedeviled by a lack of theoretical clarity. Much empirical work treats status as a uni-dimensional construct, and then unknowingly operationalizes it as either prestige or dominance, or some mix of the two. This may explain the confusing and contradictory results that plague this literature. Meanwhile, through brute empiricism, other researchers continually re-discover aspects of the two dimensions (prestige and dominance), often without realizing just how many times this has occurred (Henrich & Gil-White, 2001). Labels like power, dominance, status, expertise, collaborative leadership, and coercive leadership are applied differently depending on the literature and sub-discipline. The hope is that ground-up evolutionary theorizing regarding status might help unify these efforts into a single set of cumulative research programs. At this point, our approach has generated some follow-up by other researchers, including work that hormonally distinguishes prestige and dominance (Johnson, Burk, & Kirkpatrick, 2007), reveals related emotions (Algoe, Haidt, & Silvers, 2006), demonstrates strategic female mate preferences (Snyder, Kirkpatrick, & Barrett, 2008), applies our concept to celebrity gossip (De Backer, Nelissen, Vyncke, Braeckman, & McAndrew, 2007) and explores the impact on economic decision-making (Bruno, 2006; Eckel & Wilson, 2000). Work in small-scale human societies indicates that both forms of status lead to higher fitness, albeit via different mechanisms (von Rueden, Gurven, & Kaplan, 2011).
Boyd, R., Richerson, P. J., & Henrich, J. (2011a). The cultural niche: Why social learning is essential for human adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 10918-10925.
Chudek, M., Heller, S., Birch, S., & Henrich, J. (2011). Prestige-biased cultural learning: Bystander's differential attention to potential models influences children's learning. Evolution and Human Behavior, In Press, Corrected Proof.