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Biology Essay Shapes Fitting Together ##HOT##


Structure and importance of plasma membranes inside and around cells.","front_plain":"Structure and importance of plasma membranes inside and around cells.","back":"1. description of phosphlipid bilayer + diagram - control movement of substances into and out of cells2. fluid-mosaic3. contains channel proteins, pumps, in- and extrinsic proteins, cholesterol to make membrane fluid4. thylakoid membranes - LDR photosynthesis - large SA for attachment of chlorophyll, enzymes and electron carriers5. inner mitochondrial membranes - ETC6. prokaryote cell membrane--> mesosome--> formation of pilus (conjugation) for horizontal gene transmission7. neurones - AP - gated ion channels and pump in axon membrane8. synapses9. small intestine epithelial cell membranes contain Cl- and Na+ channel proteins - take ions in from lumen to maintain water potential gradient10. mRNA - fitting through nuclear pore to attach to ribosomes on RER11. sperm + egg membrane fusion - sperm releases digestive enzymes which degrade the layer of glycoproteins on the egg, allowing the membranes to fuse - sperm nucleus enters egg12. alkaline hydrothermal vents - have membranes containing H+ - thought to be how life started - form acetyl phosphate and pyrophosphate","back_plain":"1. description of phosphlipid bilayer + diagram - control movement of substances into and out of cells\n2. fluid-mosaic\n3. contains channel proteins, pumps, in- and extrinsic proteins, cholesterol to make membrane fluid\n4. thylakoid membranes - LDR photosynthesis - large SA for attachment of chlorophyll, enzymes and electron carriers\n5. inner mitochondrial membranes - ETC\n6. prokaryote cell membrane\n--> mesosome\n--> formation of pilus (conjugation) for horizontal gene transmission\n7. neurones - AP - gated ion channels and pump in axon membrane\n8. synapses\n9. small intestine epithelial cell membranes contain Cl- and Na+ channel proteins - take ions in from lumen to maintain water potential gradient\n10. mRNA - fitting through nuclear pore to attach to ribosomes on RER\n11. sperm + egg membrane fusion - sperm releases digestive enzymes which degrade the layer of glycoproteins on the egg, allowing the membranes to fuse - sperm nucleus enters egg\n12. alkaline hydrothermal vents - have membranes containing H+ - thought to be how life started - form acetyl phosphate and pyrophosphate","src":null,"hint":"","hint_plain":"","card_id":0,"srcHint":null,"srcFront":null,"audio_front":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=e2639b6&s=U3RydWN0dXJlIGFuZCBpbXBvcnRhbmNlIG9mIHBsYXNtYSBtZW1icmFuZXMgaW5zaWRlIGFuZCBhcm91bmQgY2VsbHMu","audio_back":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=5994c3f&s=MS4gZGVzY3JpcHRpb24gb2YgcGhvc3BobGlwaWQgYmlsYXllciArIGRpYWdyYW0gLSBjb250cm9sIG1vdmVtZW50IG9mIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgaW50byBhbmQgb3V0IG9mIGNlbGxzCjIuIGZsdWlkLW1vc2FpYwozLiBjb250YWlucyBjaGFubmVsIHByb3RlaW5zLCBwdW1wcywgaW4tIGFuZCBleHRyaW5zaWMgcHJvdGVpbnMsIGNob2xlc3Rlcm9sIHRvIG1ha2UgbWVtYnJhbmUgZmx1aWQKNC4gdGh5bGFrb2lkIG1lbWJyYW5lcyAtIExEUiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyAtIGxhcmdlIFNBIGZvciBhdHRhY2htZW50IG9mIGNobG9yb3BoeWxs","audio_hint":null},"front":"Carbon dioxide may affect organisms directly or indirectly. Describe and explain these effects.","front_plain":"Carbon dioxide may affect organisms directly or indirectly. Describe and explain these effects.","back":"1. Respiring tissues produce more CO2 - lower pO2 - Hb unloads O2 used in repiration2. chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries - CO2 to carbonic acid - lowers pH - impulses to medulla oblongata - increases ventilation rate and heart rate3. needed in LIR photosynthesis - RuBP + CO2 --> GP --> TP --> glucose4. indirect - glucose from LIR used in respiration5. carbon cycle - C compounds from plants and animals - decomposers - that which isnt respired is fossilized - fossil fuels combusted6. rising CO2 in atmosphere - 40% more since before industrial revolution - climate change--> higher crop yields--> rising temps, more unstable weather - affects distribution of animals and plants - mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus move further north - higher prevalence of malaria--> warmer oceans - photosynthetic zooxanthellae algae in corals leave\/die - bleaching - corals weaker--> more CO2 in oceans - acidification - CaCO3 reacts with acid - damages coral skeleton + clam, snail, urchin shells - can't absorb more to maintain","back_plain":"1. Respiring tissues produce more CO2 - lower pO2 - Hb unloads O2 used in repiration\n2. chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries - CO2 to carbonic acid - lowers pH - impulses to medulla oblongata - increases ventilation rate and heart rate\n3. needed in LIR photosynthesis - RuBP + CO2 --> GP --> TP --> glucose\n4. indirect - glucose from LIR used in respiration\n5. carbon cycle - C compounds from plants and animals - decomposers - that which isnt respired is fossilized - fossil fuels combusted\n6. rising CO2 in atmosphere - 40% more since before industrial revolution - climate change\n--> higher crop yields\n--> rising temps, more unstable weather - affects distribution of animals and plants - mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus move further north - higher prevalence of malaria\n--> warmer oceans - photosynthetic zooxanthellae algae in corals leave\/die - bleaching - corals weaker\n--> more CO2 in oceans - acidification - CaCO3 reacts with acid - damages coral skeleton + clam, snail, urchin shells - can't absorb more to maintain","src":null,"hint":"","hint_plain":"","card_id":1,"srcHint":null,"srcFront":null,"audio_front":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=a6588f6&s=Q2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgbWF5IGFmZmVjdCBvcmdhbmlzbXMgZGlyZWN0bHkgb3IgaW5kaXJlY3RseS4gRGVzY3JpYmUgYW5kIGV4cGxhaW4gdGhlc2UgZWZmZWN0cy4%3D","audio_back":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=d2d6451&s=MS4gUmVzcGlyaW5nIHRpc3N1ZXMgcHJvZHVjZSBtb3JlIENPMiAtIGxvd2VyIHBPMiAtIEhiIHVubG9hZHMgTzIgdXNlZCBpbiByZXBpcmF0aW9uCjIuIGNoZW1vcmVjZXB0b3JzIGluIGFvcnRhIGFuZCBjYXJvdGlkIGFydGVyaWVzIC0gQ08yIHRvIGNhcmJvbmljIGFjaWQgLSBsb3dlcnMgcEggLSBpbXB1bHNlcyB0byBtZWR1bGxhIG9ibG9uZ2F0YSAtIGluY3JlYXNlcyB2ZW50aWxhdGlvbiByYXRlIGFuZCBoZWFydCByYXRlCjMuIG5lZWRlZCBpbiBMSVIgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgLSBSdUJQICsgQ08yIC0%3D","audio_hint":null,"front":"Structure of cells related to function.","front_plain":"Structure of cells related to function.","back":"1. chloroplasts--> thylakoid membranes - large SA for attachment of chlorophyll + enzymes + e- carriers for LDR--> starch grains - efficient storage2. guard cells - take in water when light - become turgid - opens stomata3. prokaryotes--> flagella - needed for Vibrio cholerae bacteria have one to propel them through mucous lining of small intestine--> plasmids - horizontal gene transmission - form a pilus for conjugation4. muscle fibre cells - no membranes between them (multinucleate) - contain actin and myosin for muscle contraction5. cells in liver, muscle, brown fat - lots of mitochondria for respiration6. neurones - axons contain voltage-gated ion channels and pump in membrane - myelinated and unmyelinated7. small intestine epithelial cells have villi and microvilli for large SA for increased absorption8. epithelial cells in alveoli + capillaries - flat - efficient gas exchange9. root hair cells - large SA for osmosis and active transport of mineral ions10. red blood cells--> biconcave - flexible, can fit through capillaries--> contain Hb--> no nucleus, can carry more Hb, carry more O211. phloem - sieve cells separated with perforated sieve plates12. xylem - no membranes between cells, no organelles13. fungal cells have a cell wall made of chitin that protects the cell","back_plain":"1. chloroplasts\n--> thylakoid membranes - large SA for attachment of chlorophyll + enzymes + e- carriers for LDR\n--> starch grains - efficient storage\n2. guard cells - take in water when light - become turgid - opens stomata\n3. prokaryotes\n--> flagella - needed for Vibrio cholerae bacteria have one to propel them through mucous lining of small intestine\n--> plasmids - horizontal gene transmission - form a pilus for conjugation\n4. muscle fibre cells - no membranes between them (multinucleate) - contain actin and myosin for muscle contraction\n5. cells in liver, muscle, brown fat - lots of mitochondria for respiration\n6. neurones - axons contain voltage-gated ion channels and pump in membrane - myelinated and unmyelinated\n7. small intestine epithelial cells have villi and microvilli for large SA for increased absorption\n8. epithelial cells in alveoli + capillaries - flat - efficient gas exchange\n9. root hair cells - large SA for osmosis and active transport of mineral ions\n10. red blood cells\n--> biconcave - flexible, can fit through capillaries\n--> contain Hb\n--> no nucleus, can carry more Hb, carry more O2\n11. phloem - sieve cells separated with perforated sieve plates\n12. xylem - no membranes between cells, no organelles\n13. fungal cells have a cell wall made of chitin that protects the cell","src":null,"hint":"","hint_plain":"","card_id":2,"srcHint":null,"srcFront":null,"audio_front":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=8b9a19a&s=U3RydWN0dXJlIG9mIGNlbGxzIHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gZnVuY3Rpb24u","audio_back":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=3b87ace&s=MS4gY2hsb3JvcGxhc3RzCi0tPiB0aHlsYWtvaWQgbWVtYnJhbmVzIC0gbGFyZ2UgU0EgZm9yIGF0dGFjaG1lbnQgb2YgY2hsb3JvcGh5bGwgKyBlbnp5bWVzICsgZS0gY2FycmllcnMgZm9yIExEUgotLT4gc3RhcmNoIGdyYWlucyAtIGVmZmljaWVudCBzdG9yYWdlCjIuIGd1YXJkIGNlbGxzIC0gdGFrZSBpbiB3YXRlciB3aGVuIGxpZ2h0IC0gYmVjb21lIHR1cmdpZCAtIG9wZW5zIHN0b21hdGEKMy4gcHJva2FyeW90ZXMKLS0%2BIGZsYWdlbGxhIC0gbmVlZGVkIGZvciBWaWJyaW8gY2hvbGVyYWUgYmFjdGVyaWE%3D","audio_hint":null,"front":"The biological importance of water.","front_plain":"The biological importance of water.","back":"1. H20 - delta +ve and -ve - allows hydrogen bonds - makes is cohesive + adhesive - sticks to charged surfaces like xylem vessel2. transpiration - water in xylem and phloem sap carry sugars and salts3. blood plasma - carries red blood cells, glucose, CO2, proteins4. O2 - terminal e- acceptor in ETC - forms H2O5. sweat - cools you down, prevents hyperthermia6. taxes and kinesis7. substrate for LDR photosynthesis8. antibiotics cause bacterial cell walls to not form properly - water moves down WP gradient by osmosis - osmotic lysis9. amphibians need to return to water to breed","back_plain":"1. H20 - delta +ve and -ve - allows hydrogen bonds - makes is cohesive + adhesive - sticks to charged surfaces like xylem vessel\n2. transpiration - water in xylem and phloem sap carry sugars and salts\n3. blood plasma - carries red blood cells, glucose, CO2, proteins\n4. O2 - terminal e- acceptor in ETC - forms H2O\n5. sweat - cools you down, prevents hyperthermia\n6. taxes and kinesis\n7. substrate for LDR photosynthesis\n8. antibiotics cause bacterial cell walls to not form properly - water moves down WP gradient by osmosis - osmotic lysis\n9. amphibians need to return to water to breed","src":null,"hint":"","hint_plain":"","card_id":3,"srcHint":null,"srcFront":null,"audio_front":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=f68a8bb&s=VGhlIGJpb2xvZ2ljYWwgaW1wb3J0YW5jZSBvZiB3YXRlci4%3D","audio_back":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=11ab338&s=MS4gSDIwIC0gZGVsdGEgK3ZlIGFuZCAtdmUgLSBhbGxvd3MgaHlkcm9nZW4gYm9uZHMgLSBtYWtlcyBpcyBjb2hlc2l2ZSArIGFkaGVzaXZlIC0gc3RpY2tzIHRvIGNoYXJnZWQgc3VyZmFjZXMgbGlrZSB4eWxlbSB2ZXNzZWwKMi4gdHJhbnNwaXJhdGlvbiAtIHdhdGVyIGluIHh5bGVtIGFuZCBwaGxvZW0gc2FwIGNhcnJ5IHN1Z2FycyBhbmQgc2FsdHMKMy4gYmxvb2QgcGxhc21hIC0gY2FycmllcyByZWQgYmxvb2QgY2VsbHMsIGdsdWNvc2UsIENPMiwgcHJvdGVpbnMKNC4gTzIgLSB0ZXJtaW5hbCBlLSBhY2NlcHRvciBpbiBFVEMg","audio_hint":null,"front":"Using DNA in science and technology.","front_plain":"Using DNA in science and technology.","back":"1. structure of DNA - differences lead to genetic diversity2. In Vivo - producing DNA fragments (restriction endonucleases, reverse transcriptase) - plasmid vectors, marking3. In Vitro - PCR4. Genetic screening - Sanger sequencing5. Taxonomy - base sequence + amino acid compared6. cell cycle + treatment of cancer7. gene therapy - current techniques--> gene replacements--> inactivating mutated gene--> repairing gene (selective reverse mutation)--> gene supplementation - adding healthy dominant gene, masks effect of faulty gene - used to alleviate effects of CF - inhaler or nasal spray--> somatic + germline8. possible future techniques - CF and SCID9. GM organisms--> plants - tomatoes - don't go soft--> animals - produce anti-thrombin in milk10. ethical issues of gene therapy and GM","back_plain":"1. structure of DNA - differences lead to genetic diversity\n2. In Vivo - producing DNA fragments (restriction endonucleases, reverse transcriptase) - plasmid vectors, marking\n3. In Vitro - PCR\n4. Genetic screening - Sanger sequencing\n5. Taxonomy - base sequence + amino acid compared\n6. cell cycle + treatment of cancer\n7. gene therapy - current techniques--> gene replacements--> inactivating mutated gene--> repairing gene (selective reverse mutation)--> gene supplementation - adding healthy dominant gene, masks effect of faulty gene - used to alleviate effects of CF - inhaler or nasal spray--> somatic + germline\n8. possible future techniques - CF and SCID\n9. GM organisms\n--> plants - tomatoes - don't go soft\n--> animals - produce anti-thrombin in milk\n10. ethical issues of gene therapy and GM","src":null,"hint":"","hint_plain":"","card_id":4,"srcHint":null,"srcFront":null,"audio_front":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=bf7317a&s=VXNpbmcgRE5BIGluIHNjaWVuY2UgYW5kIHRlY2hub2xvZ3ku","audio_back":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=091e59a&s=MS4gc3RydWN0dXJlIG9mIEROQSAtIGRpZmZlcmVuY2VzIGxlYWQgdG8gZ2VuZXRpYyBkaXZlcnNpdHkKMi4gSW4gVml2byAtIHByb2R1Y2luZyBETkEgZnJhZ21lbnRzIChyZXN0cmljdGlvbiBlbmRvbnVjbGVhc2VzLCByZXZlcnNlIHRyYW5zY3JpcHRhc2UpIC0gcGxhc21pZCB2ZWN0b3JzLCBtYXJraW5nCjMuIEluIFZpdHJvIC0gUENSCjQuIEdlbmV0aWMgc2NyZWVuaW5nIC0gU2FuZ2VyIHNlcXVlbmNpbmcKNS4gVGF4b25vbXkgLSBiYXNlIHNlcXVlbmNlICsgYW1pbm8gYWNpZCBjb21wYXJlZAo2LiBjZWxs","audio_hint":null,"front":"The importance of shapes fitting together in cells and organisms.","front_plain":"The importance of shapes fitting together in cells and organisms.","back":"1. complementary bases--> DNA replication--> taxonomy - comparing base sequences--> use of probes in genetic screening2. enzyme active sites3. enzymes inhibition--> can be used as treatment - statins4. e.g. rubisco5. glucagon receptor sites in liver cells - cAMP - glycogenolysis9. muscle contraction - Ca binding to troponin, myosin head binding sites10. haemoglobin and O211. translation - anticodons and AAs","back_plain":"1. complementary bases\n--> DNA replication\n--> taxonomy - comparing base sequences\n--> use of probes in genetic screening\n2. enzyme active sites\n3. enzymes inhibition\n--> can be used as treatment - statins\n4. e.g. rubisco\n5. glucagon receptor sites in liver cells - cAMP - glycogenolysis\n9. muscle contraction - Ca binding to troponin, myosin head binding sites\n10. haemoglobin and O2\n11. translation - anticodons and AAs","src":null,"hint":"","hint_plain":"","card_id":5,"srcHint":null,"srcFront":null,"audio_front":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=23c54e5&s=VGhlIGltcG9ydGFuY2Ugb2Ygc2hhcGVzIGZpdHRpbmcgdG9nZXRoZXIgaW4gY2VsbHMgYW5kIG9yZ2FuaXNtcy4%3D","audio_back":"https:\/\/tts-cdn.cram.com\/en.mp3?v=1&t=ca60d01&s=MS4gY29tcGxlbWVudGFyeSBiYXNlcwotLT4gRE5BIHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uCi0tPiB0YXhvbm9teSAtIGNvbXBhcmluZyBiYXNlIHNlcXVlbmNlcwotLT4gdXNlIG9mIHByb2JlcyBpbiBnZW5ldGljIHNjcmVlbmluZwoyLiBlbnp5bWUgYWN0aXZlIHNpdGVzCjMuIGVuenltZXMgaW5oaWJpdGlvbgotLT4gY2FuIGJlIHVzZWQgYXMgdHJlYXRtZW50IC0gc3RhdGlucwo0LiBlLmcuIHJ1YmlzY28KNS4gZ2x1Y2Fnb24gcmVjZXB0b3Igc2l0ZXMgaW4gbGl2ZXIgY2VsbHMgLSBjQU1QIC0gZ2x5Y29nZW5vbHlzaXMKOS4%3D","audio_hint":null], Langs = "lang_front":"en","lang_back":"en";function loadJQ(callback) if(!window.jQuery) // Create jQuery script element. var script = document.createElement('script'); script.type = 'text/javascript'; script.src = '//ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.7.2/jquery.min.js'; document.body.appendChild(script); script.onload = function() callback(jQuery); ; // IE 6 & 7 ala jfriend00 script.onreadystatechange = function() if (this.readyState == 'complete') callback(jQuery); else callback(jQuery); loadJQ(function($) console.log($ === jQuery); // true. jquery is loaded.); Cram has partnered with the National Tutoring Association Claim your access Ready To Get Started?




Biology Essay Shapes Fitting Together


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