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The word accountability is often used in the context of individuals, especially in the term personal accountability. It is also commonly used in the context of institutions or people that are responsible to the public, such as the government, its agencies, politicians, and the media. Accountability is often discussed with transparency and consequences. This typically involves keeping people and organizations accountable by making their actions visible and having consequences when those actions are not acceptable.


NYSED will continue to develop further resources and will communicate about any updates related to the accountability system to support schools and districts throughout the restart process. Any questions related to the content of the FAQ document can be directed to

This webinar provides an overview of the recent accountability waiver denial, flexibilities and constraints given by the United States Department of Education (USDE) for restarting the accountability system, and a description of the state of the accountability indicators in the 2021-22 school year.

The Gray Notebook is our agency's quarterly performance and accountability report. Each edition features quarterly, semi-annual and annual updates on key agency functions and provides in-depth analysis of topics that align with Washington's transportation goals as well as our strategic plan.

Notes: The group randomized to the Internet-based survey (accountability intervention) once a week had higher rates of adherence over the 12-week study period. Reproduced with permission from JAMA Dermatology. 2011;147(10):1223. Copyright 2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Yentzer BA, Wood AA, Sagransky MJ, et al. An Internet-based survey and improvement of acne treatment outcomes.24

In the acne and psoriasis Internet-based interventions, in contrast to a weekly reminder to take medication, patients were asked to report their medication experience on a weekly basis; accountability is a construct distinct from cues of action used in the HBM.17 However, whether the effectiveness of these accountability/reporting interventions was driven by fear of shame or by more positive volitional aspects has not been investigated. People adhere better when they are held accountable, particularly when they are held accountable to people they respect and who care about them.28

Self-regulation alongside self-observation are core values in the Social Cognitive Theory. Self-observation is the first step, where the individual observes his or her behavior and thereafter uses self-regulation to control his or her response to the behavior.45 Accountability can be incorporated into such a theory through self-observation, where the individual realizes he or she is being held accountable to adhere to a certain intervention. Through accountability, patients may feel a sense of responsibility and fulfillment when satisfying their goals through self-regulation.34

Controlled accountability is the expectation of account-giving causing a sense of pressure or duress. An example of this is the accountability to a cold, strict piano teacher who shames students who do not practice. In this example, there is a controlling external motive for the student to practice. While the piano teacher may not have any formal, validated means for assessing how often or how much the student practiced, the student may still feel pressured to practice by the expectation of the social interaction that will take place at the lesson. In its traditional sense, accountability has mainly been considered a controlling behavior.

In contrast to controlled accountability, in autonomous accountability, a relatively novel term, the expectation of account-giving causes a behavioral change for positive reasons. Given the self-driven nature of autonomously motivated behavior,17 one would assume that an accountability figure would not be necessary for autonomous goals. However, past work suggests that autonomous behaviors do indeed benefit from an accountability figure.9,51 In the context of piano playing, an autonomously motivated learner may be excited about sharing their progress with a beloved teacher, may feel an internal sense of pride for performing well for the teacher, or may have the belief that practicing in anticipation of a lesson is simply the correct thing to do. Here, the behavior is not controlled by shame but is rather a positive self-choice, one that fits well with patient-centered medical care (Figure 3). Autonomous accountability is not purely an intrinsic motivation (in which the behavior is performed out of the enjoyment of performing the behavior); accountability to a health care professional is inherently extrinsic, although not necessarily in any way punitive. However, there are limitations to autonomous accountability, notably in sectors where the patient has not chosen to seek care but is being provided with it compulsorily. Such examples can often be prevalent in the mental health sector.52,53 Different environments and different populations may respond more favorably to either autonomous or controlled accountability interventions.

Notes: (A) A provider (top)/patient (bottom) interaction; one in which the health care provider makes demands and any accountability might drive fear or shame (controlled accountability). (B) A shared partnership model in which accountability to good adherence gives the patient the opportunity to please himself or herself and the provider (autonomous accountability). Adapted from Servier medical art [homepage on the Internet]. Powerpoint image bank. Servier; 2013 [modified August 8, 2013]. Available from: -image-bank.72

Within this model, shared decision-making and patient autonomy are not ignored, and on the contrary, are encouraged. Self-Determination Theory and Cognitive Evaluation Theory purport the importance of competence, autonomy, and relatedness,28,54 into which autonomous and controlled accountability fit. However, autonomous accountability shares much more of these volitional aspects than controlled accountability. Better use of an accountability figure, particularly a caring health care provider, can contribute to cognitive- behavioral interventions to improve adherence and does not need to replace patient autonomy nor shared decision-making.

The Philadelphia Police Department is committed to accountability. Accessibility to departmental policies and procedures represents part of that commitment. This page highlights some of the department's accountability processes. Here you'll find critical reports about police reform and status updates on the Department's reform initiatives. You will also find detailed information about Officer Involved Shootings and the Directives that guide the conduct of all police personnel. As is the case with 21st century policing, the information on this page is evolving. We hope the information here provides understanding of the work the police department is doing to underscore the commitment to fully serve and protect the people of Philadelphia.

The Philadelphia Police Department is committed to open and transparent engagement. This engagement includes sharing information about Complaints Against Police (CAPs) here on our accountability page and on

Our mission statement is to ensure the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of the federal government and all its agencies. We provide a check and balance on the role and power of Washington - and a voice to the people it serves.

The purpose of the state accountability system (the Accountability Report Cards, also known as the School and District Report Cards) is to provide a rating system that meaningfully differentiates school and district outcomes across the performance spectrum.

The purpose of the federal accountability system is to identify the lowest performing schools and student groups for support as required in the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). The federal ESSA accountability system ranks performance resulting in the following identification categories:

When the performance of a task is substandard, there may or may not be consequences. When there's accountability, however, the employee is held responsible for successfully completing the task or explaining why they failed to do so.

Corporate accountability is about the numbers. Each publicly traded corporation must file an annual report containing audited financials. A third-party accountant reviews these reports to ensure that there are no errors or omissions.

Every public company must ensure that its books are accurate and complete. Through performance and accountability reporting (PAR), for example, an organization compiles and documents factors that quantify its profitability, efficiency and adherence to budget, comparing actual results against original targets. The PAR process is usually carried out once per fiscal year, although, in some cases, it is done more often.

Corporate accountability involves being answerable to an organization's stakeholders for all actions and results. Corporate accountants are accountable for ensuring that the information contained in the company's financial reports is correct. Accountants are also responsible for preparing financial statements accurately and completely. This is achieved by conducting audits of the company's accounts. The law requires public companies to have an audit committee whose job is to oversee the auditors.

Additionally, corporate accountability implies that an organization must be answerable for any deviations from its stated goals and values, which might be documented and made publicly available through a mission statement or vision statement. Beyond that, the concept of corporate accountability is often extended to imply a requirement for businesses to follow ethical, responsible and sustainable practices.

The media in the United States is unique compared to that in other countries because it has constitutionally guaranteed freedom from government interference. However, the First Amendment does not free the press from accountability. 041b061a72

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